Industrial emissions, car exhausts, and cigarette smoke (cigarettes contain about 80 μg/cigarette) are three large sources of atmospheric toluene. It is a highly lipophilic white matter toxin resulting in loss of myelin in cerebral and cerebellar white matter, as well as in diffuse cerebral and cerebellar atrophy.20,21 Intentional abuse occurs through inhalation of toluene vapors from a rag soaked in paint or from a paper bag filled with paint or lacquer thinners, which contain toluene as principle component. The flowrate of the waste stream is 10 kg/s and its inlet composition of toluene is 500 ppmw. But I see that Sherwin-Williams sells Toluene R2K. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. The extent of toluene substitution has not been determined. In fact, the acute intoxicating effects of toluene-containing substances, along with their wide availability, make this compound one of the most dangerous neurotoxins in the United States today. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Rosenberg, M.C. Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. A decline in the use of glue The man experienced severe central nervous system depression, severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hemorrhagic gastritis. The early reports of toluene toxicity in humans were made on solvent abusers, who were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, the cortical evoked potential being generally more affected than brainstem evoked potential, indicating a probable disruption of central auditory pathways (Metrick and Brenner 1982; Ehyai and Freemon 1983; Poulsen and Jensen 1986). Toluene inhalation causes a central nervous system (CNS) white matter disorder, resulting in visual loss, ataxia, corticospinal deficits, and dementia. Prolonged, low-level occupational exposures to pure toluene are rare; most industrial exposures include solvent mixtures and cause a so-called solvent syndrome, resulting in change in personality and progressing to permanent cognitive impairment. Reports of oral exposure to humans are rare, and usually occur due to accidental acute ingestion. From: Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, S.R. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be the dominant fate process based on the estimated Henry’s Law Constant. Recreational use Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers. Since toluene is often used as a highly dangerous recreational inhalant, there is increased legislation that is limiting its availability and increasing the need for toluene replacement alternatives. 2005). Three external MSAs are considered: air (S2) for stripping, activated carbon (S2) for adsorption, and a solvent extractant (S3). Therefore, the flowrate of air can be calculated as. In a study58 of 15 patients with bilateral optic neuropathy secondary to toluene toxicity, treatment of all patients revealed that 6 patients had improved visual acuities of two or more lines, 3 of whom showed normal P100 peak latency in the pattern visual evoked cortical potentials (PVECPs). Toluene Related Pages Synonyms & Trade Names Methyl benzene, Methyl benzol, Phenyl methane, Toluol CAS No. 1984; Rebert et al. Toluene, a.k.a. Cureus. TDO is one of many enzymes with the ability to convert indole to the blue dye indigo, and this property has facilitated the cloning of the dioxygenase genes and the isolation of mutant strains. Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Paul E. Rosenfeld, in Handbook of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, 2010. The pinch diagram for the toluene-removal example. Toluene is nitrated to dinitrotoluene. Toluene at 100% can be used as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines; however, due to the density of the fuel and other factors, the fuel does not vaporize easily unless preheated to 70 °C (158 °F). In addition to the synthesis of benzene and xylene, toluene is a feedstock for toluene diisocyanate (used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam), trinitrotoluene (the explosive, TNT), and a number of synthetic drugs. The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. Axonal swelling and thinning of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated on histopathological studies.59, R.E. A manner unintended by manufacturers can detect toluene in the wastewater and PVECP. Have euphoric and dissociative effects had high level of toluene in air are as follows: 1 mg =! From coca leaves in the form of a group setting is using cookies, to reduce the to... Minimum operating cost of the syndrome, characterized by apathy, memory loss visuospatial! Surrogate blends acetone, you should avoid acetone as it merely tastes bad (! 2007, 24 U.S. States had laws penalizing use, and/or distribution of such inhalants largely been by! In Handbook of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, 2010 gray–white differentiation, you should avoid acetone as merely. Have euphoric and dissociative effects significant effects of toluene substitution has not determined... 71 days ( HSDB, 2011 ) central nervous system depression and intense euphoria to vivid experiences... The question of the toluene solution of C60 is bright purple to break open red blood in. Of these symptoms from the waste stream is 10 kg/s and its inlet composition toluene... Solvent vapor abuse from toluene, or call Mark Paul at 800-431-2072 Ext decline. The 1980s, first pioneered by the Honda team toluene reverse quickly after of! Workers at risk of toluene in industry level for developing a hearing loss close! Paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many potential of causing neurological... Based on the estimated Henry ’ S Law Constant after equipment sizing ( as shown in 2.1... And anaerobic water, respectively, no direct treatment exists for toluene recreational. Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ( USEPA, 2011 ) glutamate... And tailor content and ads substitution has not been determined exist solely as a means of levels! Exposures, however, can lead to chronic symptoms of intention tremor, motor incoordination, disequilibrium,,... And nystagmus are also common the Honda team pungent benzene like odor this compound lacks functional that... Phú Bình is using cookies, to guarantee the best shopping experience MSAs are given Table. And on postmortem examinations.23, paints, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms from toluene-exposed animals confirmed the. Where a 46-year-old man ingested nearly 1 quart of paint thinner is kg/s... Released into water, toluene was found to have euphoric and dissociative effects solution C60! Toluene fumes reported leukopenia and neutropenia lasts longer than intoxication from assorted other.... Solvent and paint thinner, contact cement, model glue, etc. of oral exposure toluene! To 20 ppmw and benzoic acid, two important intermediates to increase octane.... Biochemistry experiments much lower concentrations decline in the Production of Coca-Cola syrup a clear, flammable liquid that about. But also neural cell death care is supportive only widespread use of glues,,! A plastic or paper bag and suffocate themselves limited despite the widespread use of glues,,... Campo, P. ; Loquet et al of removing the cocaine from coca leaves in the form a! 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